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Chef In Infinite Plane CodeChef Solution

Chef In Infinite Plane CodeChef Solution in C++17

``````#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;

int main() {
int t;cin>>t;
while(t--){
int n;cin>>n;
unordered_map<int,int> mp;
for(int i=0;i<n;i++){
int x;cin>>x;mp[x]++;
}
long long int ans=0;
for(auto &it: mp){
ans+=min(it.first-1, it.second);
}
cout<<ans<<endl;
}
return 0;
}``````

Chef In Infinite Plane CodeChef Solution in C++14

``````#include <iostream>
#include <string>
#include <sstream>
#include <iomanip>
#include <math.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <assert.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <queue>
#include <stack>
#include <vector>
#include <map>
#include <set>
#include <functional>
#include <algorithm>
#include <unordered_map>
#include <unordered_set>
#include <bitset>
#include <complex>

using namespace std;

typedef long long LL;
typedef pair<LL, LL> PL;
typedef vector<LL> VL;
typedef vector<PL> VPL;
typedef vector<VL> VVL;

typedef pair<int, int> PI;
typedef vector<int> VI;
typedef vector<PI> VPI;
typedef vector<vector<int>> VVI;
typedef vector<vector<PI>> VVPI;

typedef long double LD;
typedef pair<LD, LD> PLDLD;

typedef complex<double> CD;
typedef vector<CD> VCD;

typedef vector<string> VS;

#define MP make_pair
#define PB push_back
#define F first
#define S second
#define LB lower_bound
#define UB upper_bound

#define SZ(x) ((int)x.size())
#define LEN(x) ((int)x.length())
#define ALL(x) begin(x), end(x)
#define RSZ resize
#define ASS assign
#define REV(x) reverse(x.begin(), x.end());

#define FOR(i, a, b) for (int i = (a); i < (b); i++)
#define F0R(i, a) for (int i = 0; i < (a); i++)
#define FORd(i,a,b) for (int i = (b)-1; i >= (a); i--)
#define F0Rd(i,a) for (int i = (a)-1; i >= 0; i--)
#define trav(a, x) for (auto& a : x)

const LL INF = 1E18;
const int MAXX = 300005;
const LD PAI = 4 * atan((LD)1);

template <typename T>
class fenwick_tree {
public:
vector<T> fenw;
int n;

fenwick_tree(int _n) : n(_n) {
fenw.resize(n);
}

void update(int x, T v) {
while (x < n) {
fenw[x] += v;
x |= (x + 1);
//x += (x & (-x));
}
}

T query(int x) {
T v{};
while (x >= 0) {
v += fenw[x];
x = (x & (x + 1)) - 1;
}
return v;
}

T query_full(int a, int b) {		// range query
return query(b) - ((a <= 1) ? 0 : query(a - 1));
}
};

template <typename T>
vector<T> serialize(vector<T> a, int startvalue = 0) {
int n = a.size(), i, j, k, ct;
vector<T> ans(n);
map<T, T> id;
for (auto p : a) id[p] = 0;
ct = startvalue;
for (auto p : id) id[p.first] = ct++;
for (i = 0; i < n; i++) ans[i] = id[a[i]];
return ans;
}

template <typename T>
class segment_tree {
vector<T> t;
T VERYBIG;
bool ISMAXRANGE;
int size;
public:
segment_tree(int n, bool range_max = true) {
if (is_same<T, int>::value) VERYBIG = (1 << 30);
else if (is_same<T, LL>::value) VERYBIG = (1LL << 60);
//else if (is_same<T, PII>::value) VERYBIG = PII({ 1E9, 1E9 });
//else if (is_same<T, PLL>::value) VERYBIG = { 1LL << 60, 1LL << 60 };

ISMAXRANGE = range_max;

if (ISMAXRANGE) t.assign(4 * n + 1, 0);
else t.assign(4 * n + 1, VERYBIG);
size = n;
}

void initialize_array(vector<T>& v) {
initialize_with_array(1, 0, size - 1, v);
}

void initialize_with_array(int startpos, int l, int r, vector<T>& v) {
if (l == r) {
t[startpos] = v[l];
}
else {
int m = (l + r) / 2;
initialize_with_array(2 * startpos, l, m, v);
initialize_with_array(2 * startpos + 1, m + 1, r, v);

if (ISMAXRANGE == 1) t[startpos] = max(t[startpos * 2], t[startpos * 2 + 1]);
else  t[startpos] = min(t[startpos * 2], t[startpos * 2 + 1]);
}
}

void update(int index, T val) { // insert val into location index
update_full(1, 0, size - 1, index, val);
}

void update_full(int startpos, int l, int r, int index, T val) {
if (l == r) {
t[startpos] = val;
}
else {
int m = (l + r) / 2;
if (index <= m) update_full(2 * startpos, l, m, index, val);
else update_full(2 * startpos + 1, m + 1, r, index, val);

if (ISMAXRANGE) t[startpos] = max(t[startpos * 2], t[startpos * 2 + 1]);
else t[startpos] = min(t[startpos * 2], t[startpos * 2 + 1]);
}
}

T query(int l, int r) {  // get range min/max between l and r
if (l > r) {
if (ISMAXRANGE) return 0;
else return VERYBIG;
}
return query_full(1, 0, size - 1, l, r);
}

T query_full(int startpos, int left, int right, int l, int r) {	 // left/right = current range, l/r = intended query range
if ((left >= l) && (right <= r)) return t[startpos];
int m = (left + right) / 2;
T ans;
if (ISMAXRANGE) ans = -VERYBIG;
else ans = VERYBIG;
if (m >= l) {
if (ISMAXRANGE) ans = max(ans, query_full(startpos * 2, left, m, l, r));
else ans = min(ans, query_full(startpos * 2, left, m, l, r));
}
if (m + 1 <= r) {
if (ISMAXRANGE) ans = max(ans, query_full(startpos * 2 + 1, m + 1, right, l, r));
else ans = min(ans, query_full(startpos * 2 + 1, m + 1, right, l, r));
}
return ans;
}
};

//#define MOD 1000000007
int MOD = 1, root = 2; // 998244353

template<class T> T invGeneral(T a, T b) {
a %= b; if (a == 0) return b == 1 ? 0 : -1;
T x = invGeneral(b, a);
return x == -1 ? -1 : ((1 - (LL)b * x) / a + b) % b;
}

template<class T> struct modular {
T val;
explicit operator T() const { return val; }
modular() { val = 0; }
modular(const LL& v) {
val = (-MOD <= v && v <= MOD) ? v : v % MOD;
if (val < 0) val += MOD;
}

friend ostream& operator<<(ostream& os, const modular& a) { return os << a.val; }
friend bool operator==(const modular& a, const modular& b) { return a.val == b.val; }
friend bool operator!=(const modular& a, const modular& b) { return !(a == b); }
friend bool operator<(const modular& a, const modular& b) { return a.val < b.val; }

modular operator-() const { return modular(-val); }
modular& operator+=(const modular& m) { if ((val += m.val) >= MOD) val -= MOD; return *this; }
modular& operator-=(const modular& m) { if ((val -= m.val) < 0) val += MOD; return *this; }
modular& operator*=(const modular& m) { val = (LL)val * m.val % MOD; return *this; }
friend modular pow(modular a, LL p) {
modular ans = 1; for (; p; p /= 2, a *= a) if (p & 1) ans *= a;
return ans;
}
friend modular inv(const modular& a) {
auto i = invGeneral(a.val, MOD); assert(i != -1);
return i;
} // equivalent to return exp(b,MOD-2) if MOD is prime
modular& operator/=(const modular& m) { return (*this) *= inv(m); }

friend modular operator+(modular a, const modular& b) { return a += b; }
friend modular operator-(modular a, const modular& b) { return a -= b; }
friend modular operator*(modular a, const modular& b) { return a *= b; }

friend modular operator/(modular a, const modular& b) { return a /= b; }
};

typedef modular<int> mi;
typedef pair<mi, mi> pmi;
typedef vector<mi> vmi;
typedef vector<pmi> vpmi;

namespace vecOp {
template<class T> vector<T> rev(vector<T> v) { reverse(ALL(v)); return v; }
template<class T> vector<T> shift(vector<T> v, int x) { v.insert(v.begin(), x, 0); return v; }

template<class T> vector<T>& operator+=(vector<T>& l, const vector<T>& r) {
l.rSZ(max(SZ(l), SZ(r))); F0R(i, SZ(r)) l[i] += r[i]; return l;
}
template<class T> vector<T>& operator-=(vector<T>& l, const vector<T>& r) {
l.rSZ(max(SZ(l), SZ(r))); F0R(i, SZ(r)) l[i] -= r[i]; return l;
}
template<class T> vector<T>& operator*=(vector<T>& l, const T& r) { trav(t, l) t *= r; return l; }
template<class T> vector<T>& operator/=(vector<T>& l, const T& r) { trav(t, l) t /= r; return l; }

template<class T> vector<T> operator+(vector<T> l, const vector<T>& r) { return l += r; }
template<class T> vector<T> operator-(vector<T> l, const vector<T>& r) { return l -= r; }
template<class T> vector<T> operator*(vector<T> l, const T& r) { return l *= r; }
template<class T> vector<T> operator*(const T& r, const vector<T>& l) { return l * r; }
template<class T> vector<T> operator/(vector<T> l, const T& r) { return l /= r; }

template<class T> vector<T> operator*(const vector<T>& l, const vector<T>& r) {
if (min(SZ(l), SZ(r)) == 0) return {};
vector<T> x(SZ(l) + SZ(r) - 1); F0R(i, SZ(l)) F0R(j, SZ(r)) x[i + j] += l[i] * r[j];
return x;
}
template<class T> vector<T>& operator*=(vector<T>& l, const vector<T>& r) { return l = l * r; }

template<class T> vector<T> rem(vector<T> a, vector<T> b) {
while (SZ(b) && b.back() == 0) b.pop_back();
assert(SZ(b)); b /= b.back();
while (SZ(a) >= SZ(b)) {
a -= a.back() * shift(b, SZ(a) - SZ(b));
while (SZ(a) && a.back() == 0) a.pop_back();
}
return a;
}
template<class T> vector<T> interpolate(vector<pair<T, T>> v) {
vector<T> ret;
F0R(i, SZ(v)) {
vector<T> prod = { 1 };
T todiv = 1;
F0R(j, SZ(v)) if (i != j) {
todiv *= v[i].f - v[j].f;
vector<T> tmp = { -v[j].f,1 }; prod *= tmp;
}
ret += prod * (v[i].s / todiv);
}
return ret;
}
}

using namespace vecOp;

class factorial {
public:
LL MAXX, MOD;
VL f, ff;

factorial(LL maxx = 200010, LL mod = 998244353) {
MAXX = maxx;
MOD = mod;

f.RSZ(MAXX);
ff.RSZ(MAXX);

f[0] = 1;
for (int i = 1; i < MAXX; i++) f[i] = (f[i - 1] * i) % MOD;
for (int i = 0; i < MAXX; i++) ff[i] = mul_inv(f[i], MOD);
}

long long mul_inv(long long a, long long b)
{
long long b0 = b, t, q;
long long x0 = 0, x1 = 1;
if (b == 1) return 1;
while (a > 1) {
q = a / b;
t = b, b = a % b, a = t;
t = x0, x0 = x1 - q * x0, x1 = t;
}
if (x1 < 0) x1 += b0;
return x1;
}

long long division(long long a, long long b) {		// (a / b) mod p = ((a mod p) * (b^(-1) mod p)) mod p
long long ans, inv;
inv = mul_inv(b, MOD);
ans = ((a % MOD) * inv) % MOD;
return ans;
}

LL calcc(LL n, LL a) {
if (n == a) return 1;
if (n == 0) return 0;
if (n < a) return 0;
LL ans = (f[n] * ff[a]) % MOD;
ans = (ans * ff[n - a]) % MOD;
return ans;
}

LL calcp(LL n, LL a) {
LL ans = (f[n] * ff[n - a]) % MOD;
return ans;
}

LL exp(LL base, LL n) {
base %= MOD;
LL ans = 1, x = base, MAXLEVEL = 60, i;

for (i = 0; i < MAXLEVEL; i++) {
if ((1LL << i) > n) break;
if ((1LL << i) & n) ans = (ans * x) % MOD;
x = (x * x) % MOD;
}
return ans;
}
};

#ifdef _MSC_VER
//#include <intrin.h>
#endif

namespace FFT {
#ifdef _MSC_VER
int size(int s) {
if (s == 0) return 0;
unsigned long index;
_BitScanReverse(&index, s);
return index + 1;
}
#else
constexpr int size(int s) { return s > 1 ? 32 - __builtin_clz(s - 1) : 0; }
#endif

template<class T> bool small(const vector<T>& a, const vector<T>& b) {
return (LL)SZ(a) * SZ(b) <= 500000;
}

void genRoots(vmi& roots) { // primitive n-th roots of unity
int n = SZ(roots); mi r = pow(mi(root), (MOD - 1) / n);
roots[0] = 1; FOR(i, 1, n) roots[i] = roots[i - 1] * r;
}
void genRoots(VCD& roots) { // change cd to complex<double> instead?
int n = SZ(roots); LD ang = 2 * PAI / n;
F0R(i, n) roots[i] = CD(cos(ang * i), sin(ang * i)); // is there a way to do this more quickly?
}

template<class T> void fft(vector<T>& a, vector<T>& roots) {
int n = SZ(a);
for (int i = 1, j = 0; i < n; i++) { // sort by reverse bit representation
int bit = n >> 1;
for (; j & bit; bit >>= 1) j ^= bit;
j ^= bit; if (i < j) swap(a[i], a[j]);
}
for (int len = 2; len <= n; len <<= 1)
for (int i = 0; i < n; i += len)
F0R(j, len / 2) {
auto u = a[i + j], v = a[i + j + len / 2] * roots[n / len * j];
a[i + j] = u + v, a[i + j + len / 2] = u - v;
}
}

template<class T> vector<T> conv(vector<T> a, vector<T> b) {
//if (small(a, b)) return a * b;
int s = SZ(a) + SZ(b) - 1, n = 1 << size(s);
vector<T> roots(n); genRoots(roots);

a.RSZ(n), fft(a, roots); b.RSZ(n), fft(b, roots);
F0R(i, n) a[i] *= b[i];
reverse(begin(roots) + 1, end(roots)); fft(a, roots); // inverse FFT

T in = T(1) / T(n); trav(x, a) x *= in;
a.RSZ(s); return a;
}

VL conv(const VL& a, const VL& b) {
//if (small(a, b)) return a * b;
VCD X = conv(VCD(ALL(a)), VCD(ALL(b)));
VL x(SZ(X)); F0R(i, SZ(X)) x[i] = round(X[i].real());
return x;
} // ~0.55s when SZ(a)=SZ(b)=1<<19

VL conv(const VL& a, const VL& b, LL mod) { // http://codeforces.com/contest/960/submission/37085144
//if (small(a, b)) return a * b;
int s = SZ(a) + SZ(b) - 1, n = 1 << size(s);

VCD v1(n), v2(n), r1(n), r2(n);
F0R(i, SZ(a)) v1[i] = CD(a[i] >> 15, a[i] & 32767); // v1(x)=a0(x)+i*a1(x)
F0R(i, SZ(b)) v2[i] = CD(b[i] >> 15, b[i] & 32767); // v2(x)=b0(x)+i*b1(x)

VCD roots(n); genRoots(roots);
fft(v1, roots), fft(v2, roots);
F0R(i, n) {
int j = (i ? (n - i) : i);
CD ans1 = (v1[i] + conj(v1[j])) * CD(0.5, 0); // a0(x)
CD ans2 = (v1[i] - conj(v1[j])) * CD(0, -0.5); // a1(x)
CD ans3 = (v2[i] + conj(v2[j])) * CD(0.5, 0); // b0(x)
CD ans4 = (v2[i] - conj(v2[j])) * CD(0, -0.5); // b1(x)
r1[i] = (ans1 * ans3) + (ans1 * ans4) * CD(0, 1); // a0(x)*v2(x)
r2[i] = (ans2 * ans3) + (ans2 * ans4) * CD(0, 1); // a1(x)*v2(x)
}
reverse(begin(roots) + 1, end(roots));
fft(r1, roots), fft(r2, roots); F0R(i, n) r1[i] /= n, r2[i] /= n;

VL ret(n);
F0R(i, n) {
LL av = (LL)round(r1[i].real()); // a0*b0
LL bv = (LL)round(r1[i].imag()) + (LL)round(r2[i].real()); // a0*b1+a1*b0
LL cv = (LL)round(r2[i].imag()); // a1*b1
av %= mod, bv %= mod, cv %= mod;
ret[i] = (av << 30) + (bv << 15) + cv;
ret[i] = (ret[i] % mod + mod) % mod;
}
ret.resize(s);
return ret;
} // ~0.8s when SZ(a)=SZ(b)=1<<19
}
using namespace FFT;

long long gcd(long long a, long long b)
{
while (b != 0) {
long long t = b;
b = a % b;
a = t;
}
return a;
}

class tree {		// implementation of recurvie programming
int ct;
public:
int nn, root;				// # of nodes, id of root
vector<int> parent;			// parent of each node; -1 if unassigned
vector<int> depth;			// depth of each node
vector<int> sz;				// subtree size of each node
vector<vector<int>> sons;	// sons list from each node

// for cartesian_decomposition
vector<int> in, out;		// starting and ending position of a subtree
vector<int> pos;			// inorder of DFS

// for LCA sparse table
vector<vector<int>> pred;
int MAXLEVEL;

tree(int n) {
nn = n;
}

void add_path(int a, int b) {
}

void add_directed_path(int a, int b) {
}

void dfs_set_root(int id, bool cartesian_decomposition = false) {	// internal
if (cartesian_decomposition) {
in[id] = ct;
pos[ct] = id;
ct++;
}

sz[id]++;

for (auto p : adj[id]) {
if (parent[p] == -1) {
parent[p] = id;
depth[p] = depth[id] + 1;
dfs_set_root(p, cartesian_decomposition);
sz[id] += sz[p];

sons[id].push_back(p);
}
}

if (cartesian_decomposition) out[id] = ct - 1;
}

void set_root(int id, bool cartesian_decomposition = true) {		// set root of the tree and calculate necessary info
if (cartesian_decomposition) {
in.resize(nn);
out.resize(nn);
pos.resize(nn);
ct = 0;
}

parent.assign(nn, -1);
depth.assign(nn, -1);
sz.assign(nn, 0);
sons.clear();
sons.resize(nn);

// dfs_set_root(id, cartesian_decomposition);

// set root using stack
stack<pair<int, int>> st;		// id, # of sons processes
st.push({ id, 0 });
parent[id] = 0;
depth[id] = 0;

int ct = 0;

while (!st.empty()) {
int id = st.top().first, x = st.top().second;

if (x == 0) {
in[id] = ct;
pos[ct] = id;
sz[id] = 1;
ct++;
}

out[id] = ct - 1;
if (parent[id] != -1) {
sz[parent[id]] += sz[id];
}
st.pop();
}
else {

st.top().second++;

if (parent[p] == -1) {
parent[p] = id;
depth[p] = depth[id] + 1;
sons[id].push_back(p);
st.push({ p, 0 });
}
}
}

int i = 0;
}

void eulerian_tour_dfs(int root, vector<int>& ans) {
ans.push_back(root);
for (auto p : sons[root]) {
eulerian_tour_dfs(p, ans);
ans.push_back(root);
}
}

vector<int> eulerian_tour(int root) {
vector<int> ans;

eulerian_tour_dfs(root, ans);

return ans;
}

void prep_LCA() {		// prepare the sparse table for LCA calculation
MAXLEVEL = 1;
while ((1 << MAXLEVEL) < nn) MAXLEVEL++;
MAXLEVEL++;

pred.assign(MAXLEVEL, vector<int>(nn, 0));
pred[0] = parent;

int i, j, k;
for (i = 1; i < MAXLEVEL; i++) {
for (j = 0; j < nn; j++) {
if (pred[i - 1][j] != -1) pred[i][j] = pred[i - 1][pred[i - 1][j]];
}
}
}

int get_p_ancestor(int a, int p) {		// get p-ancestor of node a;  need to call set_root() and prep_LCA() first
int i;
for (i = MAXLEVEL - 1; (i >= 0) && (p > 0) && (a != -1); i--) {
if ((1 << i) & p) {
p -= (1 << i);
a = pred[i][a];
}
}
return a;
}

int LCA(int a, int b) {		// get the LCA of a and b, need to call set_root() and prep_LCA() first
int da = depth[a], db = depth[b];

if (da > db) {
swap(da, db);
swap(a, b);
}

int i, j, k;
for (i = MAXLEVEL - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
if (db - (1 << i) >= da) {
db -= (1 << i);
b = pred[i][b];
}
}

if (a == b) return a;

for (i = MAXLEVEL - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
if (pred[i][a] != pred[i][b]) {
a = pred[i][a];
b = pred[i][b];
}
}

return parent[a];
}

int get_distance(int a, int b) {	// get distance between a and b, need to call set_root() and prep_LCA() first
int c = LCA(a, b);
int ans = depth[a] + depth[b] - 2 * depth[c];
return ans;
}

int get_diameter() {
int a, b, c, i, j, k, id, INF = nn + 100, ans;
vector<int> dist(nn), last(nn);
queue<int> q;

if (nn == 1) return 0;

a = 1;
dist.assign(nn, INF);
dist[a] = 0;
q.push(a);

while (!q.empty()) {
id = q.front();
q.pop();

for (auto p : adj[id]) {
if (dist[p] == INF) {
dist[p] = dist[id] + 1;
q.push(p);
}
}
}

// second pass, start from the most remote node id, collect last to get ID
a = id;
dist.assign(nn, INF);
last.assign(nn, -1);
dist[a] = 0;
q.push(a);

while (!q.empty()) {
id = q.front();
q.pop();

for (auto p : adj[id]) {
if (dist[p] == INF) {
dist[p] = dist[id] + 1;
last[p] = id;
q.push(p);
}
}
}

// a and id forms the diameter
ans = dist[id];

return ans;

// construct the path of diamter in path
vector<int> path;
b = id;
c = id;
do {
path.push_back(b);
b = last[b];
} while (b != -1);

return ans;
}
};

// Union-Find Disjoint Sets Library written in OOP manner, using both path compression and union by rank heuristics
// initialize: UnionFind UF(N)

class UnionFind {                                              // OOP style
private:
vector<int> p, rank, setSize;
// p = path toward the root of disjoint set; p[i] = i means it is root
// rank = upper bound of the actual height of the tree; not reliable as accurate measure
// setSize = size of each disjoint set

int numSets;
public:
UnionFind(int N) {
setSize.assign(N, 1);
numSets = N;
rank.assign(N, 0);
p.assign(N, 0);
for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) p[i] = i;	// each belongs to its own set
}

int findSet(int i) {
return (p[i] == i) ? i : (p[i] = findSet(p[i]));		// path compression: cut short of the path if possible
}

bool isSameSet(int i, int j) {
return findSet(i) == findSet(j);
}

void unionSet(int i, int j) {
if (!isSameSet(i, j)) {
numSets--;
int x = findSet(i), y = findSet(j);
// rank is used to keep the tree short
if (rank[x] > rank[y]) { p[y] = x; setSize[x] += setSize[y]; }
else {
p[x] = y; setSize[y] += setSize[x];
if (rank[x] == rank[y]) rank[y]++;
}
}
}

int numDisjointSets() {		// # of disjoint sets
return numSets;
}

int sizeOfSet(int i) {		// size of set
return setSize[findSet(i)];
}
};

#define MAXN 205000			// total # of prime numbers
#define MAXP 1001000		// highest number to test prime

int prime[MAXN];		// prime numbers: 2, 3, 5 ...
int lp[MAXP];		// lp[n] = n if n is prime; otherwise smallest prime factor of the number
int phi[MAXP];			// phii function

class prime_class {
public:
long top;

prime_class() {			// generate all prime under MAXP
int i, i2, j;

top = 0;
lp[0] = 0;
lp[1] = 1;
for (i = 2; i < MAXP; i++) lp[i] = 0;

top = 0;
for (i = 2; i < MAXP; ++i) {
if (lp[i] == 0) {
lp[i] = i;
prime[top++] = i;
}
for (j = 0; (j < top) && (prime[j] <= lp[i]) && (i * prime[j] < MAXP); ++j)
lp[i * prime[j]] = prime[j];
}
}

bool isprime(long long key)
{
if (key < MAXP)	return (lp[key] == key) && (key >= 2);
else {
int i;
for (i = 0; (i < top) && (prime[i] * prime[i] <= key); i++)
if (key % prime[i] == 0) return false;
return true;
}
}

unordered_map<int, int> factorize(int key) {
unordered_map<int, int> ans;

while (lp[key] != key) {
ans[lp[key]]++;
key /= lp[key];
}
if (key > 1) ans[key]++;

return ans;
}

vector<int> mobius(int n) {     // generate mobius function of size n
int i, j, k, ct, curr, cct, x, last;
vector<int> mobius(n + 1);
for (i = 1; i <= n; i++) {
curr = i; ct = 0; last = -1;

while (lp[curr] != curr) {
x = lp[curr];
if (x != last) {
cct = 1;
last = x;
ct++;
}
else {
if (++cct >= 2) {
mobius[i] = 0;
goto outer;
}

}
curr /= lp[curr];
}
if (curr > 1) {
x = curr;
if (x != last) {
cct = 1;
last = x;
ct++;
}
else {
if (++cct >= 2) {
mobius[i] = 0;
goto outer;
}

}
}

if (ct % 2 == 0) mobius[i] = 1;
else mobius[i] = -1;

outer:;
}

return mobius;
}

int get_phi(int key) {	// calculate Euler's totient function, also known as phi-function
int ans = key, last = 0;

while (lp[key] != key) {
if (lp[key] != last) {
last = lp[key];
ans -= ans / last;
}
key /= lp[key];
}
if ((key > 1) && (key != last)) ans -= ans / key;

return ans;
}

void calc_all_phi(int n) {
int i, j, k;
for (int i = 1; i < n; i++) phi[i] = i;
for (int i = 2; i < n; i++) {
if (phi[i] == i) {
for (int j = i; j < n; j += i) {
phi[j] /= i;
phi[j] *= i - 1;
}
}
}
}

vector<pair<long long, long long>> factorize_full(long long key) {		// can be used to factorize numbers >= MAXP
vector<pair<long long, long long>> ans;

long i, ct, sq = sqrt(key) + 10;

for (i = 0; (i < top) && (prime[i] <= sq); i++)
if (key % prime[i] == 0) {
ct = 0;
while (key % prime[i] == 0) {
ct++;
key /= prime[i];
}
ans.push_back({ prime[i], ct });
}
if (key > 1) {
ans.push_back({ key, 1 });
}
return ans;
}

void generate_divisors(int step, int v, vector<pair<int, int>>& fp, vector<int>& ans) {
if (step < fp.size()) {
generate_divisors(step + 1, v, fp, ans);
for (int i = 1; i <= fp[step].second; i++) {
v *= fp[step].first;
generate_divisors(step + 1, v, fp, ans);
}
}
else ans.push_back(v);
}

void generate_divisors_full(long long step, long long v, vector<pair<long long, long long>>& fp, vector<long long>& ans) {
if (step < fp.size()) {
generate_divisors_full(step + 1, v, fp, ans);
for (int i = 1; i <= fp[step].second; i++) {
v *= fp[step].first;
generate_divisors_full(step + 1, v, fp, ans);
}
}
else ans.push_back(v);
}

vector<int> get_divisors(int key) {
unordered_map<int, int> f = factorize(key);
int n = f.size();
vector<pair<int, int>> fp;
for (auto p : f) fp.push_back(p);
vector<int> ans;
generate_divisors(0, 1, fp, ans);
return ans;
}

vector<long long> get_divisors_full(long long key) {
vector<pair<long long, long long>> f = factorize_full(key);
int n = f.size();
vector<pair<long long, long long>> fp;
for (auto p : f) fp.push_back(p);
vector<long long> ans;
generate_divisors_full(0, 1, fp, ans);
return ans;
}

long long get_divisors_count(long long key) {
vector<pair<long long, long long>> f = factorize_full(key);
long long ans = 1;
for (auto p : f) ans *= (p.second + 1);
return ans;
}

};

long long mul_inv(long long a, long long b)
{
long long b0 = b, t, q;
long long x0 = 0, x1 = 1;
if (b == 1) return 1;
while (a > 1) {
q = a / b;
t = b, b = a % b, a = t;
t = x0, x0 = x1 - q * x0, x1 = t;
}
if (x1 < 0) x1 += b0;
return x1;
}

long long division(long long a, long long b, long long p) {		// (a / b) mod p = ((a mod p) * (b^(-1) mod p)) mod p
long long ans, inv;
inv = mul_inv(b, p);
ans = ((a % p) * inv) % p;
return ans;
}

#define MP make_pair
#define PB push_back
#define F first
#define S second
#define LB lower_bound
#define UB upper_bound

#define SZ(x) ((int)x.size())
#define LEN(x) ((int)x.length())
#define ALL(x) begin(x), end(x)
#define RSZ resize
#define ASS assign
#define REV(x) reverse(x.begin(), x.end());

#define MAX(x) *max_element(ALL(x))
#define MIN(x) *min_element(ALL(x))
#define FOR(i, n) for (int i = 0; i < n; i++)
#define FOR1(i, n) for (int i = 1; i <= n; i++)
#define SORT(x) sort(x.begin(), x.end())
#define RSORT(x) sort(x.rbegin(), x.rend())
#define SUM(x) accumulate(x.begin(), x.end(), 0LL)

#define IN(x) cin >> x;
#define OUT(x) cout << (x) << "\n";
#define INV(x, n) FOR(iiii, n) { cin >> x[iiii]; }
#define INV1(x, n) FOR1(iiii, n) { cin >> x[iiii]; }
#define OUTV(x, n) { FOR(iiii, n) { cout << x[iiii] << " "; } cout << "\n"; }
#define OUTV1(x, n) { FOR1(iiii, n) { cout << x[iiii] << " "; } cout << "\n"; }
#define OUTYN(x) { if (x) cout << "YES\n"; else cout << "NO\n"; }
#define OUTyn(x) { if (x) cout << "Yes\n"; else cout << "No\n"; }

#define MOD7 1000000007
#define MOD9 1000000009
#define MOD3 998244353

int main()
{
ios::sync_with_stdio(false);
cin.tie(0);

LL t, n, i, j, k, ans, x, y, z;

cin >> t;
while (t--) {
cin >> n;
map<LL, LL> ct;
FOR(i, n) {
cin >> x;
ct[x]++;
}

ans = 0;
for (auto p : ct) {
ans += min(p.first - 1, p.second);
}

OUT(ans);
}

return 0;
}``````

Chef In Infinite Plane CodeChef Solution in PYTH 3

``````# cook your dish here
from collections import Counter
T=int(input())
for i in range(T):
N=int(input())
l1=list(map(int, input().split()))
a=0
k=Counter(l1)
for i in set(l1):
if k[i]>i-1:
a=a+i-1
elif k[i]<i-1:
a=a+k[i]
elif k[i]==i-1:
a=a+i-1
print(a)``````

Chef In Infinite Plane CodeChef Solution in C

``````#include<stdio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>

int main()
{
int t;
scanf("%d\n",&t);
while(t--){
int n,*ptr;
int a[100000]={[0 ... 99999] = 1};
int count=0;
scanf("%d\n",&n);
ptr=(int *)malloc(n*sizeof(int));
for(int i=0;i<n;i++)
{
scanf("%d ",ptr + i);
}
for(int i=0;i<n;i++){
if(a[ptr[i]]<ptr[i])
{
a[ptr[i]]++;
count++;
}

}
printf("%d\n",count);
}

return 0;
}``````

Chef In Infinite Plane CodeChef Solution in JAVA

``````/* package codechef; // don't place package name! */

import java.lang.*;
import java.io.*;
import java.util.*;
/* Name of the class has to be "Main" only if the class is public. */
class Codechef
{

public static void main (String[] args) throws java.lang.Exception
{
Scanner sc = new Scanner(System.in);
int T = sc.nextInt();
while(T-- > 0){
int N = sc.nextInt();
// int[] A = new int[];
HashMap<Integer, Integer> map = new HashMap<Integer, Integer>();
int x ;
for(int i = 0; i < N; i++){
x = sc.nextInt();
if(map.containsKey(x)){
map.put(x, map.get(x) + 1);
}
else map.put(x, 1);
}
int ans = 0;
for(Map.Entry<Integer,Integer> mapElement : map.entrySet()){
int key = mapElement.getKey();
int value = mapElement.getValue();
if(value >= key - 1) ans += (key - 1);
else ans += value;
}
System.out.println(ans);

}

}
}``````

Chef In Infinite Plane CodeChef Solution in PYPY 3

``````for _ in range(int(input())):
n = int(input())
arr = list(map(int,input().split(" ")))

arr_set = {}
for x in arr:
if x in arr_set.keys():
arr_set[x]+=1
else:
arr_set[x]=1

count=0
for i in arr_set.keys():
if i==1:
continue

temp_count = arr_set[i]

if temp_count==1: # there is only number of n type so count = 1
count+=1
else:
# find combination of of selcting 2 numbers from 0 to arr[i]-1
# for any numbers their combinations of selecting 2 numbs with addtion = numer is  i-1
combinations = i-1
# print(_ , i , combinations)
if combinations > temp_count:
count +=temp_count
else:
count +=combinations
print(int(count))``````

Chef In Infinite Plane CodeChef Solution in PYTH

``````# cook your code here
import sys,io,os
from collections import Counter

T=int(input())
for test in range(T):
N=int(input())
ls=list(map(int,input().strip().split()))
l1=Counter(ls)
sum=0
for key,value in l1.items():
sum=sum+min(key-1,value)
sys.stdout.write(str(sum)+'\n')``````

Chef In Infinite Plane CodeChef Solution in C#

``````using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;

namespace ConsoleApp1
{
class Program
{
static void Main(string[] args)
{
for (int i = 0; i < T; i++)
{

int[] arr = new int[N];
for(int k=0; k<N;k++)
{
arr[k] = int.Parse(input[k]);
}
Dictionary<int, int> S = new Dictionary<int, int>();
for(int j=0;j<arr.Length;j++)
{
if(!S.ContainsKey(arr[j]))
{
}
else
{
S[arr[j]]++;
}

}
int res = 0;
foreach(var k in S)
{
if(k.Value>1)
{
res = res + Math.Min(k.Key - 1, k.Value);
}
else
{
res = res + 1;
}

}

Console.WriteLine(res);

}

}

}
}

``````

Chef In Infinite Plane CodeChef Solution in NODEJS

``````process.stdin.resume();
process.stdin.setEncoding('utf8');

let inputString = '';
let currentLine = 0;

process.stdin.on('data', function(inputStdin) {
inputString += inputStdin;
});

process.stdin.on('end', function() {
inputString = inputString.split('\n');

main();
});

return inputString[currentLine++];
}

function main() {
const T = parseInt(inputString.shift(), 10);

for(let i=0; i<T; i++){
let N = parseInt(inputString.shift());
let arr = inputString.shift().trim().split(' ').map(x => parseInt(x));

let hashMap = {}
for(let i=0;i<N;i++){
if(!hashMap[arr[i]])
hashMap[arr[i]] = 0;
hashMap[arr[i]]++;
}
let ans = 0;
Object.entries(hashMap).forEach(entry => {
const [key, value] = entry;
if(key - 1 < value){
ans += key-1;
}
else{
ans += value;
}
});

console.log(ans);
}
}
``````

Chef In Infinite Plane CodeChef Solution in GO

``````package main

import (
"bufio"
"bytes"
"fmt"
"os"
"sort"
)

func main() {
var buf bytes.Buffer
for tc > 0 {
tc--
res := solve(n, A)
buf.WriteString(fmt.Sprintf("%d\n", res))
}
fmt.Print(buf.String())
}

func readInt(bytes []byte, from int, val *int) int {
i := from
sign := 1
if bytes[i] == '-' {
sign = -1
i++
}
tmp := 0
for i < len(bytes) && bytes[i] >= '0' && bytes[i] <= '9' {
tmp = tmp*10 + int(bytes[i]-'0')
i++
}
*val = tmp * sign
return i
}

return
}

a, b = res[0], res[1]
return
}

a, b, c = res[0], res[1], res[2]
return
}

res := make([]int, n)
x := 0
for i := 0; i < n; i++ {
for x < len(bs) && (bs[x] < '0' || bs[x] > '9') && bs[x] != '-' {
x++
}
}
return res
}

func readUint64(bytes []byte, from int, val *uint64) int {
i := from

var tmp uint64
for i < len(bytes) && bytes[i] >= '0' && bytes[i] <= '9' {
tmp = tmp*10 + uint64(bytes[i]-'0')
i++
}
*val = tmp

return i
}

func solve(n int, A []int) int {
sort.Ints(A)
var res int
cnt := 1
for i := 1; i <= n; i++ {
if i == n || A[i] > A[i-1] {
res += min(cnt, A[i-1]-1)
cnt = 1
} else {
cnt++
}
}

return res
}

func min(a, b int) int {
if a <= b {
return a
}
return b
}``````
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