First Missing Positive LeetCode Solution

Problem – First Missing Positive

Given an unsorted integer array nums, return the smallest missing positive integer.

You must implement an algorithm that runs in O(n) time and uses constant extra space.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [1,2,0]
Output: 3
Explanation: The numbers in the range [1,2] are all in the array.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [3,4,-1,1]
Output: 2
Explanation: 1 is in the array but 2 is missing.

Example 3:

Input: nums = [7,8,9,11,12]
Output: 1
Explanation: The smallest positive integer 1 is missing.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= nums.length <= 105
  • -231 <= nums[i] <= 231 - 1

First Missing Positive LeetCode Solution in C++

class Solution
{
public:
    int firstMissingPositive(int A[], int n)
    {
        for(int i = 0; i < n; ++ i)
            while(A[i] > 0 && A[i] <= n && A[A[i] - 1] != A[i])
                swap(A[i], A[A[i] - 1]);
        
        for(int i = 0; i < n; ++ i)
            if(A[i] != i + 1)
                return i + 1;
        
        return n + 1;
    }
};

First Missing Positive LeetCode Solution in Python

def firstMissingPositive(self, nums):
    """
    :type nums: List[int]
    :rtype: int
     Basic idea:
    1. for any array whose length is l, the first missing positive must be in range [1,...,l+1], 
        so we only have to care about those elements in this range and remove the rest.
    2. we can use the array index as the hash to restore the frequency of each number within 
         the range [1,...,l+1] 
    """
    nums.append(0)
    n = len(nums)
    for i in range(len(nums)): #delete those useless elements
        if nums[i]<0 or nums[i]>=n:
            nums[i]=0
    for i in range(len(nums)): #use the index as the hash to record the frequency of each number
        nums[nums[i]%n]+=n
    for i in range(1,len(nums)):
        if nums[i]/n==0:
            return i
    return n

First Missing Positive LeetCode Solution in Java

public class Solution {
    public int firstMissingPositive(int[] A) {
        int i = 0;
        while(i < A.length){
            if(A[i] == i+1 || A[i] <= 0 || A[i] > A.length) i++;
            else if(A[A[i]-1] != A[i]) swap(A, i, A[i]-1);
            else i++;
        }
        i = 0;
        while(i < A.length && A[i] == i+1) i++;
        return i+1;
    }
    
    private void swap(int[] A, int i, int j){
        int temp = A[i];
        A[i] = A[j];
        A[j] = temp;
    }
}
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