Lowest Common Ancestor of a Binary Search Tree LeetCode Solution

Problem – Lowest Common Ancestor of a Binary Search Tree

Given a binary search tree (BST), find the lowest common ancestor (LCA) node of two given nodes in the BST.

According to the definition of LCA on Wikipedia: “The lowest common ancestor is defined between two nodes p and q as the lowest node in T that has both p and q as descendants (where we allow a node to be a descendant of itself).”

Example 1:

Input: root = [6,2,8,0,4,7,9,null,null,3,5], p = 2, q = 8
Output: 6
Explanation: The LCA of nodes 2 and 8 is 6.

Example 2:

Input: root = [6,2,8,0,4,7,9,null,null,3,5], p = 2, q = 4
Output: 2
Explanation: The LCA of nodes 2 and 4 is 2, since a node can be a descendant of itself according to the LCA definition.

Example 3:

Input: root = [2,1], p = 2, q = 1
Output: 2

Constraints:

  • The number of nodes in the tree is in the range [2, 105].
  • -109 <= Node.val <= 109
  • All Node.val are unique.
  • p != q
  • p and q will exist in the BST.

Lowest Common Ancestor of a Binary Search Tree LeetCode Solution in Python

def lowestCommonAncestor(self, root, p, q):
    while (root.val - p.val) * (root.val - q.val) > 0:
        root = (root.left, root.right)[p.val > root.val]
    return root

Lowest Common Ancestor of a Binary Search Tree LeetCode Solution in Java

public TreeNode lowestCommonAncestor(TreeNode root, TreeNode p, TreeNode q) {
    while ((root.val - p.val) * (root.val - q.val) > 0)
        root = p.val < root.val ? root.left : root.right;
    return root;
}

Lowest Common Ancestor of a Binary Search Tree LeetCode Solution in C++

/**
 * Definition for a binary tree node.
 * struct TreeNode {
 *     int val;
 *     TreeNode *left;
 *     TreeNode *right;
 *     TreeNode(int x) : val(x), left(NULL), right(NULL) {}
 * };
 */
class Solution {
public:
    TreeNode* lowestCommonAncestor(TreeNode* root, TreeNode* p, TreeNode* q) {
        if ((root -> val > p -> val) && (root -> val > q -> val)) {
            return lowestCommonAncestor(root -> left, p, q);
        }
        if ((root -> val < p -> val) && (root -> val < q -> val)) {
            return lowestCommonAncestor(root -> right, p, q);
        }
        return root;
    }
};
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