Text Analytics 101 Quiz Answer – Cognitive Class

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From social media to news articles to machine logs, text data is everywhere. This class will teach you about Information Extraction: how to extract structured data from text in order to derive valuable insights. You will learn about information extraction applications in various domains, such as social media, healthcare analytics, and financial risk analysis.

You will explore common text analytics tasks, including entity, relation, and event extraction, as well as sentiment analysis. Finally, you will dive into “Declarative Information Extraction”, a powerful method for doing high-performance and high-quality text analytics, and gain hands-on experience writing your own extractors.

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Module 1 – Getting to Know IE

Question: Your client would like to know how its advertising campaign impressed customers. Which IE task would provide this data?

  • Event Extraction
  • Co-reference resolution
  • Sentiment Extraction
  • Relation Extraction

Question: Which extraction phase can turn a dictionary match of a common first name plus an adjacent regular expression into a “potential person name” entity?

  • None of these
  • Entity Resolution
  • Named Entity Recognition
  • Feature Selection

Question: Consider a set of news articles that contains 20 mentions of person names. From this source, an extractor extracts 15 entities, 3 of which are incorrect. What are the Precision (P) and Recall (R) values?

  • P = 0.30, R = 0.70
  • P = 0.70, R = 0.30
  • P = 0.80, R = 0.60
  • P = 1.00, R = 1.30

Module 2 – Limitations in IE

Question: Which of the following poses huge demands on the IE engine?

  • Complex IE tasks
  • Heterogeneous text inputs
  • Different types of data
  • All of the above

Question: A typical IE grammar-based workflow:

  • Targets the step closest to the nature of the rule applied.
  • Follows a unidirectional sequence of steps.
  • Targets each step based on the nature of the input data.
  • Creates a branched path according to the input and the desired output.

Question: We can overcome IE performance limitations by:

  • Separating extractor semantics from execution strategy.
  • Coupling extractor semantics with execution strategy.
  • Parallel processing.
  • Making faster finite state transducers.

Module 3 – Getting to Know SystemT

Question: What outputs do extractors generate in SystemT?

  • Extractors
  • Regular Expressions
  • Annotations
  • None of above

Question: An output refiner helps you to:

  • Define multiple filters.
  • Union multiple extractors.
  • Define multiple extractors.
  • None of above.

Question: By selecting the Mapping Table checkbox in the Dictionary extractor, you can:

  • Map dictionary terms against categories.
  • Create a two-column dictionary.
  • Add a column of metadata.
  • All of the above.

Module 4 – IE with AQL

Question: Which of the following statements describes AQL?

  • AQL has a syntax that is similar to SQL.
  • AQL has expressive power of algebra.
  • AQL separates semantics from implementation.
  • All of the above.

Question: What are the main advantages of SystemT’s approach towards Information Extraction?

  • A. Richer and cleaner rule semantics
  • B. Better performance through optimization
  • C. Improved quality of results
  • D. A and B

Question: Which of the following files can be part of an AQL module?

  • Dictionary file
  • AQL file
  • UDF jar
  • All of the above

Module 5 – AQL Basics

Question: Which factor is essential for the Union All statement to work?

  • The tuples should be from the same input text.
  • The schemas of the tuples should be different.
  • The schemas of the tuples should be from a single view.
  • The schemas of the tuples should be same.

Question: Which of the following options is a valid consolidate policy?

  • ContainsButNotEqual
  • RightToLeft
  • ExactEqual
  • ContainedInside

Question: When is the Minus statement useful?

  • When the two sets of input tuples have different schemas
  • When you want to find matches for a sequence pattern
  • When you want to subtract a set of tuples from another set of tuples
  • All of the above

Module 6 – Advanced AQL

Question: Which type of text can be extracted using the Detag statement?

  • Semi-structured text
  • Unstructured text
  • Structured text
  • None of above

Question: When should you use a standard tokenizer?

  • When token boundaries are defined by punctuation and whitespace.
  • When extraction of person names from Chinese text is needed.
  • When extraction of parts of speech is required.
  • All of the above.

Question: Which best practices should you use when developing an AQL module?

  • Place large dictionaries and tables in separate modules.
  • Avoid using the output view statement when developing extractor libraries.
  • Document the source code using AQL Doc.
  • All of the above.

Module 7 – Declarative IE and the SystemT Optimizer

Question: Which of the following leads to mistakes when two rules match the same region of text?

  • Limited expressivity
  • Lossy sequencing
  • Rigid matching priority
  • None of the above

Question: Which of the following strategies can overcome lossy sequencing?

  • Expand rule patterns to include features such as aggregation.
  • Impose modular tokenization.
  • Include matching regimes that increase flexibility on priority.
  • Use grammar rules that operate on graphs rather than sequences of annotations.

Question: In which stage of the SystemT optimizer do you merge block plans into a single operator graph?

  • Post-processor
  • Planner
  • Pre-processor
  • None of the above

Module 8 – Best Practices

Question: Why is it that the first document in a collection is often at the top of the AQL Profiler’s “hot” documents view?

  • The optimizer is trying to produce plans that are sensitive to each input document.
  • This is because of how Java implements regex.
  • This is due to the Java compiler.
  • SystemT sorts documents by length for processing, so the first document is the longest.

Question: Which of the following is NOT a best practice for writing AQL?

  • Use the AQL profiler to find and address hot spots.
  • Follow simple rules of thumb when writing AQL.
  • Don’t hand-tune while writing AQL.
  • Always ignore throughput levels when designing extractors.

Question: Why is it necessary to be selective about performance tuning?

  • A. It might adversely affect code readability
  • B. It might reduce the quality of your results
  • C. It might make your code more difficult to maintain
  • A and B.
  • A and C.

Final Exam

Question: Identify the logical sequence of phases in an IE system.

  • Entity Identification > Feature Selection > Entity Resolution
  • Entity Identification > Entity Resolution > Feature Selection
  • Feature Selection > Entity Resolution > Entity Identification
  • Feature Selection > Entity Identification > Entity Resolution

Question: Consider a set of news articles that contains 100 mentions of organizations. From this source, an extractor extracts 75 entities, 50 of which are correct. What are the Precision (P) and Recall (R) values of this extractor?

  • P = 0.75, R = 0.50
  • P = 0.67, R = 1.50
  • P = 0.67, R = 0.50
  • P = 0.50, R = 0.67

Question: What problem is caused by an IE system having a rigid matching priority?

  • Regular expressions cannot be used when specifying rules.
  • There is no support for matching strings spanning more than one token.
  • The system cannot express aggregation operations.
  • When multiple rules match the same region of text, mistakes are likely to occur.

Question: The SystemT consolidate policy:

  • Applies a filtering predicate to output tuples.
  • Specified how to handle tuples with overlapping spans.
  • Specifies which tuple columns to group on.
  • Specifies a tuple ordering.

Question: Which of the following AQL statements uses expressions, dictionaries, and sequence patterns to perform extraction?

  • Relational style statement.
  • Extract statement.
  • Create table statement.
  • Select statement.

Question: Which of the following statements are part of an AQL file?

  • Create external table statements.
  • Import statements.
  • Create external dictionary statements.
  • Export statements.
  • All of the above.

Question: Which of the following types is a return value for table UDFs?

  • Tuples.
  • Integer.
  • Span.
  • Boolean.

Question: Which predicate would you use to check if a span is exactly equal to one of a predefined set of words?

  • FollowsTok.
  • MatchesRegex.
  • MatchesDict.
  • ContainsDict.

Question: Why is correct text tokenization important?

  • A. Dictionary evaluation and many extraction operators, such as regex, are done on token boundaries, and incorrect tokenization will lead to incorrect results.
  • B. Several built-in predicates and functions are token sensitive.
  • C. AQL extract statements will not compile if tokenization is incorrect.
  • A and B.
  • A and C.

Question: Which of the following is NOT a best practice rule of thumb to follow when writing AQL?

  • Use dictionaries instead of regex whenever possible.
  • Make sure each module has its own copy of every dictionary.
  • Avoid using UDFs as join predicates.
  • Avoid Cartesian products.

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