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# Way Out CodeChef Solution

## Way Out CodeChef Solution in C++17

``````#include <bits/stdc++.h>

#pragma optimization_level 3
#pragma GCC optimize("Ofast,no-stack-protector,unroll-loops,fast-math,O3")
#pragma GCC target("sse,sse2,sse3,ssse3,sse4,popcnt,abm,mmx,avx")
#pragma GCC optimize("Ofast")//Comment optimisations for interactive problems (use endl)
#pragma GCC target("avx,avx2,fma")
#pragma GCC optimization ("unroll-loops")

using namespace std;

struct PairHash {inline std::size_t operator()(const std::pair<int, int> &v) const { return v.first * 31 + v.second; }};

// speed
#define Code ios_base::sync_with_stdio(false);
#define By ios::sync_with_stdio(0);
#define Sumfi cout.tie(NULL);

// alias
using ll = long long;
using ld = long double;
using ull = unsigned long long;

// constants
const ld PI = 3.14159265358979323846;  /* pi */
const ll INF = 1e18;
const ld EPS = 1e-9;
const ll MAX_N = 202020;
const ll mod = 1e9 + 7;

// typedef
typedef pair<ll, ll> pll;
typedef vector<pll> vpll;
typedef array<ll,3> all3;
typedef array<ll,5> all5;
typedef vector<all3> vall3;
typedef vector<all5> vall5;
typedef vector<ld> vld;
typedef vector<ll> vll;
typedef vector<vll> vvll;
typedef vector<int> vi;
typedef deque<ll> dqll;
typedef deque<pll> dqpll;
typedef pair<string, string> pss;
typedef vector<pss> vpss;
typedef vector<string> vs;
typedef vector<vs> vvs;
typedef unordered_set<ll> usll;
typedef unordered_set<pll, PairHash> uspll;
typedef unordered_map<ll, ll> umll;
typedef unordered_map<pll, ll, PairHash> umpll;

// macros
#define rep(i,m,n) for(ll i=m;i<n;i++)
#define rrep(i,m,n) for(ll i=n;i>=m;i--)
#define all(a) begin(a), end(a)
#define rall(a) rbegin(a), rend(a)
#define ZERO(a) memset(a,0,sizeof(a))
#define MINUS(a) memset(a,0xff,sizeof(a))
#define INF(a) memset(a,0x3f3f3f3f3f3f3f3fLL,sizeof(a))
#define ASCEND(a) iota(all(a),0)
#define sz(x) ll((x).size())
#define BIT(a,i) (a & (1ll<<i))
#define BITSHIFT(a,i,n) (((a<<i) & ((1ll<<n) - 1)) | (a>>(n-i)))
#define pyes cout<<"Yes\n";
#define pno cout<<"No\n";
#define endl "\n"
#define pneg1 cout<<"-1\n";
#define ppossible cout<<"Possible\n";
#define pimpossible cout<<"Impossible\n";
#define TC(x) cout<<"Case #"<<x<<": ";
#define X first
#define Y second

// utility functions
template <typename T>
void print(T &&t)  { cout << t << "\n"; }
template<typename T>
void printv(vector<T>v){ll n=v.size();rep(i,0,n){cout<<v[i];if(i+1!=n)cout<<' ';}cout<<endl;}
template<typename T>
void printvln(vector<T>v){ll n=v.size();rep(i,0,n)cout<<v[i]<<endl;}
void fileIO(string in = "input.txt", string out = "output.txt") {freopen(in.c_str(),"r",stdin); freopen(out.c_str(),"w",stdout);}
template<typename T>
template<typename T, typename U>
template<typename T, typename U>

struct Combination {
vll fac, inv;
ll n, MOD;

ll modpow(ll n, ll x, ll MOD = mod) { if(!x) return 1; ll res = modpow(n,x>>1,MOD); res = (res * res) % MOD; if(x&1) res = (res * n) % MOD; return res; }

Combination(ll _n, ll MOD = mod): n(_n + 1), MOD(MOD) {
inv = fac = vll(n,1);
rep(i,1,n) fac[i] = fac[i-1] * i % MOD;
inv[n - 1] = modpow(fac[n - 1], MOD - 2, MOD);
rrep(i,1,n - 2) inv[i] = inv[i + 1] * (i + 1) % MOD;
}

ll fact(ll n) {return fac[n];}
ll nCr(ll n, ll r) {
if(n < r or n < 0 or r < 0) return 0;
return fac[n] * inv[r] % MOD * inv[n-r] % MOD;
}
};

struct Matrix {
ll r,c;
vvll matrix;
Matrix(ll r, ll c, ll v = 0): r(r), c(c), matrix(vvll(r,vll(c,v))) {}

Matrix operator*(const Matrix& B) const {
Matrix res(r, B.c);
rep(i,0,r) rep(j,0,B.c) rep(k,0,B.r) {
res.matrix[i][j] = (res.matrix[i][j] + matrix[i][k] * B.matrix[k][j] % mod) % mod;
}
return res;
}

Matrix copy() {
Matrix copy(r,c);
copy.matrix = matrix;
return copy;
}

Matrix pow(ll n) {
assert(r == c);
Matrix res(r,r);
Matrix now = copy();
rep(i,0,r) res.matrix[i][i] = 1;
while(n) {
if(n & 1) res = res * now;
now = now * now;
n /= 2;
}
return res;
}
};

// geometry data structures
template <typename T>
struct Point {
T y,x;
Point(T y, T x) : y(y), x(x) {}
Point(pair<T,T> p) : y(p.first), x(p.second) {}
Point() {}
void input() {cin>>y>>x;}
friend ostream& operator<<(ostream& os, const Point<T>& p) { os<<p.y<<' '<<p.x<<'\n'; return os;}
Point<T> operator+(Point<T>& p) {return Point<T>(y + p.y, x + p.x);}
Point<T> operator-(Point<T>& p) {return Point<T>(y - p.y, x - p.x);}
Point<T> operator*(ll n) {return Point<T>(y*n,x*n); }
Point<T> operator/(ll n) {return Point<T>(y/n,x/n); }
bool operator<(const Point &other) const {if (x == other.x) return y < other.y;return x < other.x;}
Point<T> rotate(Point<T> center, ld angle) {
ld si = sin(angle * PI / 180.), co = cos(angle * PI / 180.);
ld y = this->y - center.y;
ld x = this->x - center.x;

return Point<T>(y * co - x * si + center.y, y * si + x * co + center.x);
}
ld distance(Point<T> other) {
T dy = abs(this->y - other.y);
T dx = abs(this->x - other.x);
return sqrt(dy * dy + dx * dx);
}

T norm() { return x * x + y * y; }
};

template<typename T>
struct Line {
Point<T> A, B;
Line(Point<T> A, Point<T> B) : A(A), B(B) {}
Line() {}

void input() {
A = Point<T>();
B = Point<T>();
A.input();
B.input();
}

T ccw(Point<T> &a, Point<T> &b, Point<T> &c) {
T res = a.x * b.y + b.x * c.y + c.x * a.y;
res -= (a.x * c.y + b.x * a.y + c.x * b.y);
return res;
}

bool isIntersect(Line<T> o) {
T p1p2 = ccw(A,B,o.A) * ccw(A,B,o.B);
T p3p4 = ccw(o.A,o.B,A) * ccw(o.A,o.B,B);
if (p1p2 == 0 && p3p4 == 0) {
pair<T,T> p1(A.y, A.x), p2(B.y,B.x), p3(o.A.y, o.A.x), p4(o.B.y, o.B.x);
if (p1 > p2) swap(p2, p1);
if (p3 > p4) swap(p3, p4);
return p3 <= p2 && p1 <= p4;
}
return p1p2 <= 0 && p3p4 <= 0;
}

pair<bool,Point<ld>> intersection(Line<T> o) {
if(!this->intersection(o)) return {false, {}};
ld det = 1. * (o.B.y-o.A.y)*(B.x-A.x) - 1.*(o.B.x-o.A.x)*(B.y-A.y);
ld t = ((o.B.x-o.A.x)*(A.y-o.A.y) - (o.B.y-o.A.y)*(A.x-o.A.x)) / det;
return {true, {A.y + 1. * t * (B.y - A.y), B.x + 1. * t * (B.x - A.x)}};
}

//@formula for : y = ax + b
//@return {a,b};
pair<ld, ld> formula() {
T y1 = A.y, y2 = B.y;
T x1 = A.x, x2 = B.x;
if(y1 == y2) return {1e9, 0};
if(x1 == x2) return {0, 1e9};
ld a = 1. * (y2 - y1) / (x2 - x1);
ld b = -x1 * a + y1;
return {a, b};
}
};

template<typename T>
struct Circle {
Point<T> center;
Circle() {}

void input() {
center = Point<T>();
center.input();
}

bool circumference(Point<T> p) {
return (center.x - p.x) * (center.x - p.x) + (center.y - p.y) * (center.y - p.y) == radius * radius;
}

bool intersect(Circle<T> c) {
T d = (center.x - c.center.x) * (center.x - c.center.x) + (center.y - c.center.y) * (center.y - c.center.y);
}

bool include(Circle<T> c) {
T d = (center.x - c.center.x) * (center.x - c.center.x) + (center.y - c.center.y) * (center.y - c.center.y);
}
};

ll __gcd(ll x, ll y) { return !y ? x : __gcd(y, x % y); }
all3 __exgcd(ll x, ll y) { if(!y) return {x,1,0}; auto [g,x1,y1] = __exgcd(y, x % y); return {g, y1, x1 - (x/y) * y1}; }
ll __lcm(ll x, ll y) { return x / __gcd(x,y) * y; }
ll modpow(ll n, ll x, ll MOD = mod) { n%=MOD; if(!x) return 1; ll res = modpow(n,x>>1,MOD); res = (res * res) % MOD; if(x&1) res = (res * n) % MOD; return res; }

ll solve(vpll A, ll k, ll n) {
vll sum(n + 2);
rep(i,0,sz(A)) {
auto [l,h] = A[i];
sum[l] += 1, sum[h + 1] -= 1;
}
rep(i,1,sz(sum)) sum[i] += sum[i-1];
ll res = INF, now = 0;
rep(i,0,sz(sum) - 1) {
now += sum[i];
if(i >= k) now -= sum[i-k];
if(i + 1 >= k) {
res = min(res, k * sz(A) - now);
}
}
return res;
}

int main() {

cout.precision(12);
ll tc = 1;
cin>>tc;
rep(i,1,tc+1) {
ll n,k;
cin>>n>>k;
vpll A(n);
print(solve(A,k,n));
}
return 0;
}``````

## Way Out CodeChef Solution in C++14

``````#include <bits/stdc++.h>

#pragma optimization_level 3
#pragma GCC optimize("Ofast,no-stack-protector,unroll-loops,fast-math,O3")
#pragma GCC target("sse,sse2,sse3,ssse3,sse4,popcnt,abm,mmx,avx")
#pragma GCC optimize("Ofast")//Comment optimisations for interactive problems (use endl)
#pragma GCC target("avx,avx2,fma")
#pragma GCC optimization ("unroll-loops")

using namespace std;

struct PairHash {inline std::size_t operator()(const std::pair<int, int> &v) const { return v.first * 31 + v.second; }};

// speed
#define Code ios_base::sync_with_stdio(false);
#define By ios::sync_with_stdio(0);
#define Sumfi cout.tie(NULL);

// alias
using ll = long long;
using ld = long double;
using ull = unsigned long long;

// constants
const ld PI = 3.14159265358979323846;  /* pi */
const ll INF = 1e18;
const ld EPS = 1e-9;
const ll MAX_N = 202020;
const ll mod = 1e9 + 7;

// typedef
typedef pair<ll, ll> pll;
typedef vector<pll> vpll;
typedef array<ll,3> all3;
typedef array<ll,5> all5;
typedef vector<all3> vall3;
typedef vector<all5> vall5;
typedef vector<ld> vld;
typedef vector<ll> vll;
typedef vector<vll> vvll;
typedef vector<int> vi;
typedef deque<ll> dqll;
typedef deque<pll> dqpll;
typedef pair<string, string> pss;
typedef vector<pss> vpss;
typedef vector<string> vs;
typedef vector<vs> vvs;
typedef unordered_set<ll> usll;
typedef unordered_set<pll, PairHash> uspll;
typedef unordered_map<ll, ll> umll;
typedef unordered_map<pll, ll, PairHash> umpll;

// macros
#define rep(i,m,n) for(ll i=m;i<n;i++)
#define rrep(i,m,n) for(ll i=n;i>=m;i--)
#define all(a) begin(a), end(a)
#define rall(a) rbegin(a), rend(a)
#define ZERO(a) memset(a,0,sizeof(a))
#define MINUS(a) memset(a,0xff,sizeof(a))
#define INF(a) memset(a,0x3f3f3f3f3f3f3f3fLL,sizeof(a))
#define ASCEND(a) iota(all(a),0)
#define sz(x) ll((x).size())
#define BIT(a,i) (a & (1ll<<i))
#define BITSHIFT(a,i,n) (((a<<i) & ((1ll<<n) - 1)) | (a>>(n-i)))
#define pyes cout<<"Yes\n";
#define pno cout<<"No\n";
#define endl "\n"
#define pneg1 cout<<"-1\n";
#define ppossible cout<<"Possible\n";
#define pimpossible cout<<"Impossible\n";
#define TC(x) cout<<"Case #"<<x<<": ";
#define X first
#define Y second

// utility functions
template <typename T>
void print(T &&t)  { cout << t << "\n"; }
template<typename T>
void printv(vector<T>v){ll n=v.size();rep(i,0,n){cout<<v[i];if(i+1!=n)cout<<' ';}cout<<endl;}
template<typename T>
void printvln(vector<T>v){ll n=v.size();rep(i,0,n)cout<<v[i]<<endl;}
void fileIO(string in = "input.txt", string out = "output.txt") {freopen(in.c_str(),"r",stdin); freopen(out.c_str(),"w",stdout);}
template<typename T>
template<typename T, typename U>
template<typename T, typename U>

struct Combination {
vll fac, inv;
ll n, MOD;

ll modpow(ll n, ll x, ll MOD = mod) { if(!x) return 1; ll res = modpow(n,x>>1,MOD); res = (res * res) % MOD; if(x&1) res = (res * n) % MOD; return res; }

Combination(ll _n, ll MOD = mod): n(_n + 1), MOD(MOD) {
inv = fac = vll(n,1);
rep(i,1,n) fac[i] = fac[i-1] * i % MOD;
inv[n - 1] = modpow(fac[n - 1], MOD - 2, MOD);
rrep(i,1,n - 2) inv[i] = inv[i + 1] * (i + 1) % MOD;
}

ll fact(ll n) {return fac[n];}
ll nCr(ll n, ll r) {
if(n < r or n < 0 or r < 0) return 0;
return fac[n] * inv[r] % MOD * inv[n-r] % MOD;
}
};

struct Matrix {
ll r,c;
vvll matrix;
Matrix(ll r, ll c, ll v = 0): r(r), c(c), matrix(vvll(r,vll(c,v))) {}

Matrix operator*(const Matrix& B) const {
Matrix res(r, B.c);
rep(i,0,r) rep(j,0,B.c) rep(k,0,B.r) {
res.matrix[i][j] = (res.matrix[i][j] + matrix[i][k] * B.matrix[k][j] % mod) % mod;
}
return res;
}

Matrix copy() {
Matrix copy(r,c);
copy.matrix = matrix;
return copy;
}

Matrix pow(ll n) {
assert(r == c);
Matrix res(r,r);
Matrix now = copy();
rep(i,0,r) res.matrix[i][i] = 1;
while(n) {
if(n & 1) res = res * now;
now = now * now;
n /= 2;
}
return res;
}
};

// geometry data structures
template <typename T>
struct Point {
T y,x;
Point(T y, T x) : y(y), x(x) {}
Point(pair<T,T> p) : y(p.first), x(p.second) {}
Point() {}
void input() {cin>>y>>x;}
friend ostream& operator<<(ostream& os, const Point<T>& p) { os<<p.y<<' '<<p.x<<'\n'; return os;}
Point<T> operator+(Point<T>& p) {return Point<T>(y + p.y, x + p.x);}
Point<T> operator-(Point<T>& p) {return Point<T>(y - p.y, x - p.x);}
Point<T> operator*(ll n) {return Point<T>(y*n,x*n); }
Point<T> operator/(ll n) {return Point<T>(y/n,x/n); }
bool operator<(const Point &other) const {if (x == other.x) return y < other.y;return x < other.x;}
Point<T> rotate(Point<T> center, ld angle) {
ld si = sin(angle * PI / 180.), co = cos(angle * PI / 180.);
ld y = this->y - center.y;
ld x = this->x - center.x;

return Point<T>(y * co - x * si + center.y, y * si + x * co + center.x);
}
ld distance(Point<T> other) {
T dy = abs(this->y - other.y);
T dx = abs(this->x - other.x);
return sqrt(dy * dy + dx * dx);
}

T norm() { return x * x + y * y; }
};

template<typename T>
struct Line {
Point<T> A, B;
Line(Point<T> A, Point<T> B) : A(A), B(B) {}
Line() {}

void input() {
A = Point<T>();
B = Point<T>();
A.input();
B.input();
}

T ccw(Point<T> &a, Point<T> &b, Point<T> &c) {
T res = a.x * b.y + b.x * c.y + c.x * a.y;
res -= (a.x * c.y + b.x * a.y + c.x * b.y);
return res;
}

bool isIntersect(Line<T> o) {
T p1p2 = ccw(A,B,o.A) * ccw(A,B,o.B);
T p3p4 = ccw(o.A,o.B,A) * ccw(o.A,o.B,B);
if (p1p2 == 0 && p3p4 == 0) {
pair<T,T> p1(A.y, A.x), p2(B.y,B.x), p3(o.A.y, o.A.x), p4(o.B.y, o.B.x);
if (p1 > p2) swap(p2, p1);
if (p3 > p4) swap(p3, p4);
return p3 <= p2 && p1 <= p4;
}
return p1p2 <= 0 && p3p4 <= 0;
}

pair<bool,Point<ld>> intersection(Line<T> o) {
if(!this->intersection(o)) return {false, {}};
ld det = 1. * (o.B.y-o.A.y)*(B.x-A.x) - 1.*(o.B.x-o.A.x)*(B.y-A.y);
ld t = ((o.B.x-o.A.x)*(A.y-o.A.y) - (o.B.y-o.A.y)*(A.x-o.A.x)) / det;
return {true, {A.y + 1. * t * (B.y - A.y), B.x + 1. * t * (B.x - A.x)}};
}

//@formula for : y = ax + b
//@return {a,b};
pair<ld, ld> formula() {
T y1 = A.y, y2 = B.y;
T x1 = A.x, x2 = B.x;
if(y1 == y2) return {1e9, 0};
if(x1 == x2) return {0, 1e9};
ld a = 1. * (y2 - y1) / (x2 - x1);
ld b = -x1 * a + y1;
return {a, b};
}
};

template<typename T>
struct Circle {
Point<T> center;
Circle() {}

void input() {
center = Point<T>();
center.input();
}

bool circumference(Point<T> p) {
return (center.x - p.x) * (center.x - p.x) + (center.y - p.y) * (center.y - p.y) == radius * radius;
}

bool intersect(Circle<T> c) {
T d = (center.x - c.center.x) * (center.x - c.center.x) + (center.y - c.center.y) * (center.y - c.center.y);
}

bool include(Circle<T> c) {
T d = (center.x - c.center.x) * (center.x - c.center.x) + (center.y - c.center.y) * (center.y - c.center.y);
}
};

ll __gcd(ll x, ll y) { return !y ? x : __gcd(y, x % y); }
all3 __exgcd(ll x, ll y) { if(!y) return {x,1,0}; auto [g,x1,y1] = __exgcd(y, x % y); return {g, y1, x1 - (x/y) * y1}; }
ll __lcm(ll x, ll y) { return x / __gcd(x,y) * y; }
ll modpow(ll n, ll x, ll MOD = mod) { n%=MOD; if(!x) return 1; ll res = modpow(n,x>>1,MOD); res = (res * res) % MOD; if(x&1) res = (res * n) % MOD; return res; }

ll solve(vpll A, ll k, ll n) {
vll sum(n + 2);
rep(i,0,sz(A)) {
auto [l,h] = A[i];
sum[l] += 1, sum[h + 1] -= 1;
}
rep(i,1,sz(sum)) sum[i] += sum[i-1];
ll res = INF, now = 0;
rep(i,0,sz(sum) - 1) {
now += sum[i];
if(i >= k) now -= sum[i-k];
if(i + 1 >= k) {
res = min(res, k * sz(A) - now);
}
}
return res;
}

int main() {
cout.precision(12);
ll tc = 1;
cin>>tc;
rep(i,1,tc+1) {
ll n,k;
cin>>n>>k;
vpll A(n);
print(solve(A,k,n));
}
return 0;
}``````

## Way Out CodeChef Solution in PYTH 3

``````t=int(input())
for _ in range(t):
n,g=map(int,input().split())
a=[0 for i in range(n+1)]
for i in range(n):
l,h=map(int,input().split())
a[l]+=1
a[h+1]-=1
for i in range(1,n):
a[i]+=a[i-1]
for i in range(1,n):
a[i]+=a[i-1]
a=[0]+a
m=-1
for i in range(n-g+1):
m=max(m,a[i+g]-a[i])
print(n*g-m)``````

## Way Out CodeChef Solution in C

``````#include<stdio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#define ge getchar_unlocked
#define min(a,b) a<b?a:b
int scani()
{
int x=0;
int neg=0;
register int c=ge();
for(;((c<'0' || c>'9') && c!='-');c=ge());
if(c=='-')
{neg=1;
c=ge();
}
for(;c>='0' && c<='9';c=ge())
x=(x<<1)+(x<<3)+c-'0';
if(neg==1)
return -x;
return x;
}
int main()
{
int t;
scanf("%d",&t);
while(t--)
{
int *arr=(int *)malloc(sizeof(int)*1000005);
int *b=(int *)malloc(sizeof(int)*1000005);
int n,h,i;
n=scani();
h=scani();
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
{
arr[i]=n;
b[i]=0;
}
int l,r,j,k;
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
{
l=scani();    r=scani();
b[l]++;
b[r+1]--;
}
int sum=0;
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
{
sum+=b[i];
arr[n-1-i]-=sum;
}
long long cnt=0,min1;
for(i=0;i<h;i++)
cnt+=arr[i];
min1=cnt;
for(i=h;i<n;i++)
{
cnt=cnt+arr[i]-arr[i-h];
if(min1>cnt)
min1=cnt;
if(min1==0)
break;
}
printf("%lld\n",min1);
free(arr);
free(b);
}
return 0;
}``````

## Way Out CodeChef Solution in JAVA

``````//package kg.my_algorithms.codechef;

import java.io.*;
import java.math.BigInteger;
import java.util.*;

public class Main {
private static final long MOD = 998244353;
public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
BufferedWriter output = new BufferedWriter(new OutputStreamWriter(System.out));
StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
int testCases = fr.nextInt();
for(int test=1;test<=testCases;test++) {
int n = fr.nextInt();
int height = fr.nextInt();
int[] sub = new int[n+1];
int[] arr = new int[n];
for(int i=0;i<n;i++) arr[i] = n;
for(int i=0;i<n;i++){
int left = fr.nextInt();
int right = fr.nextInt();
sub[left] -= 1;
sub[right+1] += 1;
}
for(int i=1;i<n+1;i++){
sub[i] += sub[i-1];
}
long sum = 0L;
for(int i=0;i<height;i++) sum += (arr[i]+sub[i]);
//           System.out.println("sum= " + sum);
long min = sum;
for(int i=height;i<n;i++) {
sum += (arr[i]+sub[i]-arr[i-height]-sub[i-height]);
//                System.out.println("sum= " + sum);
min = Math.min(min,sum);
}
//           System.out.println("sub= " + Arrays.toString(sub));
sb.append(min).append("\n");
}
output.write(sb.toString());
output.flush();
}

}

StringTokenizer st;

{
}

String next() {
while (st == null || !st.hasMoreElements()) {
try {
}
catch (IOException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
}
}
return st.nextToken();
}

int nextInt() { return Integer.parseInt(next()); }

long nextLong() { return Long.parseLong(next()); }

double nextDouble()
{
return Double.parseDouble(next());
}

String nextLine()
{
String str = "";
try {
if(st.hasMoreTokens()){
str = st.nextToken("\n");
}
else{
}
}
catch (IOException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
}
return str;
}
}
/*
1
78965413 7106887170

*/``````

## Way Out CodeChef Solution in PYPY 3

``````import sys
for _ in range(int(inp())):
N,H=map(int,inp().split())
ft=[0]*(N+1)
def update(i,k):
while i<=N:
ft[i]+=k
i += i &-i

def query(i):
ans=0
while i>0:
ans+=ft[i]
i -= i& -i
return ans

for _ in range(N):
l,h=map(int,inp().split())
l+=1
h+=1
update(l,1)
update(h+1,-1)
queries=[0]*(N+1)
for i in range(1,N+1):
queries[i]=query(i)
res,empty,i=sys.maxsize,0,1
while i<=N:
empty+=queries[i]
if i>=H:
res=min(res,N*H-empty)
if i-H+1>=1:
empty-=queries[i-H+1]
i+=1
print(res)
``````

## Way Out CodeChef Solution in PYTH

``````t = int(raw_input())
for i in range(t):
st = raw_input().split()
N = int(st[0])
H = int(st[1])
D = [0 for x in range(N+2)]
D[0] = N
for k in range(N):
st = raw_input().split()
n1 = int(st[0])
n2 = int(st[1])
D[n1] -= 1
D[n2+1] += 1
# endfor k
for k in range(1,N+1):
D[k] += D[k-1]
# endfor k
tot = 0
for k in range(H):
tot += D[k]
# endfor k
mi = tot
for p in range(H,N):
tot += D[p] - D[p-H]
if tot < mi:
mi = tot
# endif
# endfor p
print mi
# endfor i
``````

## Way Out CodeChef Solution in C#

``````using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;

public class Test
{
public static void Main()
{
while(t-- > 0)
{
var ranges = new List<int[]>();
for(int i = 0; i < parameters[0]; i++)
{
}
var dirtArray = BuildDirtArray(parameters[0], ranges);
var result = QueryMinimumEffort(dirtArray, parameters[1]);
Console.WriteLine(result);
}
}

private static long QueryMinimumEffort(int[] dirtArray, int height)
{
long best = int.MaxValue;
long current = 0;
for(int i = 0; i < dirtArray.Length; i++)
{
if(i < height)
{
current += dirtArray[i];
best = current;
continue;
}
current -= dirtArray[i - height];
current += dirtArray[i];
if (current < best)
best = current;
}
return best;
}

private static int[] BuildDirtArray(int length, List<int[]> ranges)
{
var leaves = (int)Math.Pow(2, Math.Ceiling(Math.Log(length, 2)));
var tree = new int[leaves * 2];
foreach(var range in ranges)
{
Update(tree, range[0], range[1], 1, 0, leaves-1);
}
var result = new int[length];
for(int i = 0; i < result.Length; i++)
{
result[i] = length - Query(tree, i);
}
return result;
}

private static int Query(int[] tree, int index)
{
var result = 0;
for(int i = index + tree.Length/2; i >= 1; i /= 2)
{
result += tree[i];
}
return result;
}

private static void Update(
int[] tree,
int rangeLow,
int rangeHigh,
int node,
int nodeLow,
int nodeHigh)
{
if (rangeLow > nodeHigh || rangeHigh < nodeLow)
return;
if (nodeLow >= rangeLow && nodeHigh <= rangeHigh)
{
tree[node]++;
return;
}
var mid = nodeLow + (nodeHigh-nodeLow) / 2;
Update(tree, rangeLow, rangeHigh, node*2, nodeLow, mid);
Update(tree, rangeLow, rangeHigh, node * 2 + 1, mid + 1, nodeHigh);
}
}``````

## Way Out CodeChef Solution in GO

``````package main

import (
"bufio"
"fmt"
"log"
"os"
"strconv"
"strings"
)

func main() {
sc := bufio.NewScanner(os.Stdin)

A := make([]int, 1000000)     // A[i] is the number of blocks in row i
B := make([]int, 1000000)     // B[i] is the number of blocks in rows [0, i]
start := make([]int, 1000000) // start[i] is the number of gaps starting at i
end := make([]int, 1000000)   // end[i] is the number of gaps closing at (i - 1)

for i := 0; i < t; i++ {

for j := 0; j < N; j++ {
start[low]++
if high < N-1 {
end[high+1]++
}
}

// init
A[0] = N - start[0]
B[0] = A[0]

// clean
start[0] = 0
end[0] = 0

// calculate blocks for each line and result
res := -1
for j := 1; j < N; j++ {
// update
A[j] = A[j-1] - start[j] + end[j]
B[j] = B[j-1] + A[j]

// clean
start[j] = 0
end[j] = 0

// calculate min
if j >= H-1 {
remove := 0
if j > H-1 {
remove = B[j-H]
}
blocks := B[j] - remove
if res == -1 || blocks < res {
res = blocks
}
}
}

fmt.Println(res)
}
}

sc.Scan()
text := sc.Text()
res, err := strconv.Atoi(text)
if err != nil {
log.Fatal(err)
}
return res
}

func readCouple(sc *bufio.Scanner) (int, int) {
sc.Scan()
text := sc.Text()
tokens := strings.Split(text, " ")
if len(tokens) != 2 {
log.Fatal("wrong input")
}

res1, err := strconv.Atoi(tokens[0])
if err != nil {
log.Fatal(err)
}

res2, err := strconv.Atoi(tokens[1])
if err != nil {
log.Fatal(err)
}

return res1, res2
}``````
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