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# Weekly Contest 300 LeetCode Solution

## Problem 1 – Decode the Message LeetCode Solution

You are given the strings `key` and `message`, which represent a cipher key and a secret message, respectively. The steps to decode `message` are as follows:

1. Use the first appearance of all 26 lowercase English letters in `key` as the order of the substitution table.
2. Align the substitution table with the regular English alphabet.
3. Each letter in `message` is then substituted using the table.
4. Spaces `' '` are transformed to themselves.
• For example, given `key = "happy boy"` (actual key would have at least one instance of each letter in the alphabet), we have the partial substitution table of (`'h' -> 'a'``'a' -> 'b'``'p' -> 'c'``'y' -> 'd'``'b' -> 'e'``'o' -> 'f'`).

Return the decoded message.

Example 1:

``````Input: key = "the quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog", message = "vkbs bs t suepuv"
Output: "this is a secret"
Explanation: The diagram above shows the substitution table.
It is obtained by taking the first appearance of each letter in "the quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog".``````

Example 2:

``````Input: key = "eljuxhpwnyrdgtqkviszcfmabo", message = "zwx hnfx lqantp mnoeius ycgk vcnjrdb"
Output: "the five boxing wizards jump quickly"
Explanation: The diagram above shows the substitution table.
It is obtained by taking the first appearance of each letter in "eljuxhpwnyrdgtqkviszcfmabo".``````

Constraints:

• `26 <= key.length <= 2000`
• `key` consists of lowercase English letters and `' '`.
• `key` contains every letter in the English alphabet (`'a'` to `'z'`at least once.
• `1 <= message.length <= 2000`
• `message` consists of lowercase English letters and `' '`.

### Decode the Message LeetCode Solution in C++

``````string decodeMessage(string key, string mess) {
char m[128] = {}, cur = 'a';
for (char k : key)
if (isalpha(k) && m[k] == 0)
m[k] = cur++;
for (int i = 0; i < mess.size(); ++i)
mess[i] = m[mess[i]] ?: mess[i];
return mess;
}
``````

### Decode the Message LeetCode Solution in Java

``````class Solution {
public String decodeMessage(String key, String message) {
StringBuilder ans = new StringBuilder();//Using String Builder to append the string
key = key.replaceAll(" ", "");
//Removing the spaces
HashMap<Character,Character> letters = new HashMap<>();
//Mapping the key into a hashmap.
char original = 'a';
for (int i = 0; i < key.length() ; i++) {
if (!letters.containsKey(key.charAt(i))){
letters.put(key.charAt(i),original++);
}
}
//After the first pass all the letters of the key will be mapped with their respective original letters.
for (int i = 0; i < message.length(); i++) {
if (letters.containsKey(message.charAt(i))){
//Now replacing the letters of the message with appropriate letter according to the key
ans.append(letters.get(message.charAt(i)));
}else{
ans.append(message.charAt(i));
//This is for characters other than the letters in the key example a space " "
//They will not be replaced by any letters hence original letter is appended into the StringBuilder
}
}
return ans.toString();
}
}
``````

### Decode the Message LeetCode Solution in Python

``````class Solution:
def decodeMessage(self, key: str, message: str) -> str:
alpha = ['a','b','c','d','e','f','g','h','i','j','k','l','m','n','o','p','q','r','s','t','u','v','w','x','y','z']
i=0
d={}
for j in key:
if j!=" " and j not in d:
d[j]=alpha[i]
i+=1
if len(d)==26:
break
res=""
d[" "]=" "
for i in message:
res+=d[i]
return res
``````

## Problem 2 – Spiral Matrix IV LeetCode Solution

You are given two integers `m` and `n`, which represent the dimensions of a matrix.

You are also given the `head` of a linked list of integers.

Generate an `m x n` matrix that contains the integers in the linked list presented in spiral order (clockwise), starting from the top-left of the matrix. If there are remaining empty spaces, fill them with `-1`.

Return the generated matrix.

Example 1:

``````Input: m = 3, n = 5, head = [3,0,2,6,8,1,7,9,4,2,5,5,0]
Output: [[3,0,2,6,8],[5,0,-1,-1,1],[5,2,4,9,7]]
Explanation: The diagram above shows how the values are printed in the matrix.
Note that the remaining spaces in the matrix are filled with -1.``````

Example 2:

``````Input: m = 1, n = 4, head = [0,1,2]
Output: [[0,1,2,-1]]
Explanation: The diagram above shows how the values are printed from left to right in the matrix.
The last space in the matrix is set to -1.
``````

Constraints:

• `1 <= m, n <= 105`
• `1 <= m * n <= 105`
• The number of nodes in the list is in the range `[1, m * n]`.
• `0 <= Node.val <= 1000`

### Spiral Matrix IV LeetCode Solution in C++

``````vector<vector<int>> spiralMatrix(int m, int n, ListNode* head) {
int i = 0, j = 0, cur_d = 0, d[5] = {0, 1, 0, -1, 0};
vector<vector<int>> res(m, vector<int>(n, -1));
int ni = i + d[cur_d], nj = j + d[cur_d + 1];
if (min(ni, nj) < 0 || ni >= m || nj >= n || res[ni][nj] != -1)
cur_d = (cur_d + 1) % 4;
i += d[cur_d];
j += d[cur_d + 1];
}
return res;
}
``````

### Spiral Matrix IV LeetCode Solution in Python

``````class Solution:
def spiralMatrix(self, m: int, n: int, head: Optional[ListNode]) -> List[List[int]]:
num = m * n
res = [[-1 for j in range(n)] for i in range(m)]
x, y = 0, 0
dx, dy = 1, 0
if x + dx < 0 or x + dx >= n or y + dy < 0 or y + dy >= m or res[y+dy][x+dx] != -1:
dx, dy = -dy, dx
x = x + dx
y = y + dy
return res
``````

### Spiral Matrix IV LeetCode Solution in Java

``````
class Solution {
public int[][] spiralMatrix(int m, int n, ListNode head) {
int[][] result = new int[m][n];
int top =0;
int bottom = m-1;
int left =0;
int right = n-1;
int len = m*n;
int count =0;
int val=0;
while(count<len){
//Top
for(int i = left; i<=right && count<len; i++){
} else val=-1;
result[top][i] = val;
count++;
}
top++;
// right
for(int i = top; i<=bottom && count<len; i++){
} else val=-1;
result[i][right] = val;
count++;
}
right--;
// bottom
for(int i = right; i>=left && count<len; i--){
} else val=-1;
result[bottom][i] = val;
count++;
}
bottom--;
// left
for(int i = bottom; i>=top && count<len; i--){
} else val=-1;
result[i][left] = val;
count++;
}
left++;
}

return result;
}
``````

## Problem 3 – Number of People Aware of a Secret LeetCode Solution

On day `1`, one person discovers a secret.

You are given an integer `delay`, which means that each person will share the secret with a new person every day, starting from `delay` days after discovering the secret. You are also given an integer `forget`, which means that each person will forget the secret `forget` days after discovering it. A person cannot share the secret on the same day they forgot it, or on any day afterwards.

Given an integer `n`, return the number of people who know the secret at the end of day `n`. Since the answer may be very large, return it modulo `109 + 7`.

Example 1:

``````Input: n = 6, delay = 2, forget = 4
Output: 5
Explanation:
Day 1: Suppose the first person is named A. (1 person)
Day 2: A is the only person who knows the secret. (1 person)
Day 3: A shares the secret with a new person, B. (2 people)
Day 4: A shares the secret with a new person, C. (3 people)
Day 5: A forgets the secret, and B shares the secret with a new person, D. (3 people)
Day 6: B shares the secret with E, and C shares the secret with F. (5 people)
``````

Example 2:

``````Input: n = 4, delay = 1, forget = 3
Output: 6
Explanation:
Day 1: The first person is named A. (1 person)
Day 2: A shares the secret with B. (2 people)
Day 3: A and B share the secret with 2 new people, C and D. (4 people)
Day 4: A forgets the secret. B, C, and D share the secret with 3 new people. (6 people)
``````

Constraints:

• `2 <= n <= 1000`
• `1 <= delay < forget <= n`

### Number of People Aware of a Secret LeetCode Solution in Java

``````    public int peopleAwareOfSecret(int n, int delay, int forget) {
long dp[] = new long[n + 1], mod = (long)1e9 + 7, share = 0, res = 0;
dp[1] = 1;
for (int i = 2; i <= n; ++i)
dp[i] = share = (share + dp[Math.max(i - delay, 0)] - dp[Math.max(i - forget, 0)] + mod) % mod;
for (int i = n - forget + 1; i <= n; ++i)
res = (res + dp[i]) % mod;
return (int)res;
}
``````

### Number of People Aware of a Secret LeetCode Solution in C++

``````    int peopleAwareOfSecret(int n, int delay, int forget) {
vector<long> dp(n + 1);
dp[1] = 1;
int share = 0, mod = 1e9 + 7, res = 0 ;
for (int i = 2; i <= n; ++i)
dp[i] = share = (share + dp[max(i - delay, 0)] - dp[max(i - forget, 0)] + mod) % mod;
for (int i = n - forget + 1; i <= n; ++i)
res = (res + dp[i]) % mod;
return res;
}
``````

### Number of People Aware of a Secret LeetCode Solution in Python

``````    def peopleAwareOfSecret(self, n, delay, forget):
dp = [1] + [0] * (n - 1)
mod = 10 ** 9 + 7
share = 0
for i in range(1, n):
dp[i] = share = (share + dp[i - delay] - dp[i - forget]) % mod
return sum(dp[-forget:]) % mod
``````

## Problem 4 – Number of Increasing Paths in a Grid LeetCode Solution

You are given an `m x n` integer matrix `grid`, where you can move from a cell to any adjacent cell in all `4` directions.

Return the number of strictly increasing paths in the grid such that you can start from any cell and end at any cell. Since the answer may be very large, return it modulo `109 + 7`.

Two paths are considered different if they do not have exactly the same sequence of visited cells.

Example 1:

``````Input: grid = [[1,1],[3,4]]
Output: 8
Explanation: The strictly increasing paths are:
- Paths with length 1: [1], [1], [3], [4].
- Paths with length 2: [1 -> 3], [1 -> 4], [3 -> 4].
- Paths with length 3: [1 -> 3 -> 4].
The total number of paths is 4 + 3 + 1 = 8.
``````

Example 2:

``````Input: grid = [[1],[2]]
Output: 3
Explanation: The strictly increasing paths are:
- Paths with length 1: [1], [2].
- Paths with length 2: [1 -> 2].
The total number of paths is 2 + 1 = 3.``````

Constraints:

• `m == grid.length`
• `n == grid[i].length`
• `1 <= m, n <= 1000`
• `1 <= m * n <= 105`
• `1 <= grid[i][j] <= 105`

### Number of Increasing Paths in a Grid LeetCode Solution in C++

``````static int MOD=1e9+7;
static vector<int> dirs={0,1,0,-1,0};
class Solution {
public:
vector<vector<long>> memo;
long dp(vector<vector<int>>& grid,int i,int j) {
long result=1;  // Contribution of current cell as an increasing sequence.
if(memo[i][j]!=-1)  // Return the cached results if they exist.
return memo[i][j];
for(int d=0;d<4;d++) {  // Check all 4 directions.
int x=i+dirs[d],y=j+dirs[d+1];
if(x>=0&&y>=0&&x<grid.size()&&y<grid[0].size()&&grid[x][y]>grid[i][j])
result=(result+dp(grid,x,y))%MOD;       // Add the total number of cells in the longest path for all directions.
}
return memo[i][j]=result;
}
int countPaths(vector<vector<int>>& grid) {
long result=0;
memo.resize(grid.size(),vector<long>(grid[0].size(),-1));
for(int i=0;i<grid.size();i++)      // For each cell as a starting point calculate the number of increasing paths it can contribute.
for(int j=0;j<grid[0].size();j++)
result=(result+dp(grid,i,j))%MOD;
return result;
}
};
``````

### Number of Increasing Paths in a Grid LeetCode Solution in Python

``````def countPaths(self, A: List[List[int]]) -> int:
m, n, mod, dirs = len(A), len(A[0]), (10 ** 9) + 7, [(0, 1), (1, 0), (-1, 0), (0, -1)]
@cache
def dp(i, j):
return sum((1 + dp(i + x, j + y)) for x, y in dirs if 0 <= i + x < m and 0 <= j + y < n and A[i + x][j + y] > A[i][j]) % mod
return (sum(dp(i, j) % mod for i in range(m) for j in range(n)) + (m * n)) % mod
``````

### Number of Increasing Paths in a Grid LeetCode Solution in Java

``````    long mod=1000000007;
long dp[][];
public int countPaths(int[][] grid) {

int n=grid.length,m=grid[0].length;
dp=new long[n][m];
long ans=0;
for(int i=0;i<n;i++){
for(int j=0;j<m;j++){

ans=(ans+find(i,j,grid))%mod;
ans=(ans+mod)%mod;
}
}
return (int)(ans%1000000007);
}
int dir[][]={{-1,0},{1,0},{0,1},{0,-1}};
long find(int i,int j,int grid[][]){

if(dp[i][j]!=0) return dp[i][j];

long ans=1;
for(int k=0;k<4;k++){
int i1=i+dir[k][0],j1=j+dir[k][1];

if(i1<0 || j1<0 || i1==dp.length || j1==dp[0].length || grid[i][j]<=grid[i1][j1])
continue;

ans=(ans+find(i1,j1,grid))%mod;
}
ans=(ans+mod)%mod;
return dp[i][j]=(ans);
}
``````
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